New York Journal of Mathematics
Volume 25 (2019), 156-167


Carmen Caprau

Invariants for trivalent tangles and handlebody-tangles

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Published: January 20, 2019.
Keywords: handlebody-links, invariants, knotted trivalent graphs, tangles.
Subject: Primary 57M27; Secondary 57M15, 57M25.

An enhanced trivalent tangle is a trivalent tangle with some of its edges labeled. We use enhanced trivalent tangles and classical knot theory to provide a recipe for constructing invariants for trivalent tangles, and in particular, for knotted trivalent graphs. Our method also yields invariants of, what we refer to as, enhanced handlebody-tangles and enhanced handlebody-links.


The author was partially supported by Simons Foundation grant #355640.

Author information

Carmen Caprau:
Department of Mathematics
California State University
Fresno, CA 93740, USA